锆石开采过程

什么是锆石

锆石 is ubiquitous in the crust of Earth. It occurs as a common accessory mineral in igneous rocks (as primary crystallization products), in metamorphic rocks and as detrital grains in sedimentary rocks. Large zircon crystals are rare. Their average size in granite rocks is about 0.1–0.3 mm, but they can also grow to sizes of several centimeters, especially in mafic pegmatites and carbonatites. 锆石 is also very resistant to heat and corrosion.

锆石

Because of their uranium and thorium content, some zircons undergo metamictization. Connected to internal radiation damage, these processes partially disrupt the crystal structure and partly explain the highly variable properties of zircon. As zircon becomes more and more modified by internal radiation damage, 密度降低, the crystal structure is compromised, 颜色就变了.

锆石矿业

Mining of mineral sands can be by both dry mining and wet (dredge) mining methods. 在一些国家, 矿物砂产品, principally titanium minerals, are also recovered from hard rock mining methods.

Dry mining is suitable where deposits are shallow, contain hard bands of rock, or are in a series of unconnected ore bodies.

重晶石使用

锆石 is mainly consumed as an opacifier, and has been known to be used in the decorative ceramics industry. It is also the principal precursor not only to metallic zirconium, although this application is small, but also to all compounds of zirconium including zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), one of the most refractory materials known.

Other applications include use in refractories and foundry casting and a growing array of specialty applications as zirconia and zirconium chemicals, including in nuclear fuel rods, catalytic fuel converters and in water and air purification systems.

锆石采矿方法

重力分离:
锆石 occurs in ilmenite and often accompanied by 赤铁矿, 铬铁矿 and 石榴石 and other heavy minerals. 因此, in the initial stage of zircon enrichment, gravity separation is often used, such as shaking table to separate heavy minerals from gangue(quartz, 长石, 黑云母)and other heavy minerals.

上市:
commonly used collectors are fatty acids(oleic acid, 油酸钠), the slurry regulator is sodium carbonate, the inhibitor is sodium silicate, the activator is sodium sulfide and heavy metal salts(zirconium chloride, 氯化铁). Oxalic acid is also used to adjust the pulp to acid and flotation with amine collectors.

静电分离:
导电矿物, 如钛铁矿, 赤铁矿, 铬铁矿, 锡石和金红石, are separated from the non-conductive minerals such as zircon, 独居石, 石榴石 and apatite by using the difference of conductivity of minerals. Before deselect, desliming, drying and dosing should be done.

磁分离:
Heavy minerals in the magnetic minerals are ilmenite, 赤铁矿, 铬铁矿, 石榴石, 黑云母, 独居石等等. 锆石 is a non-magnetic mineral or a weakly magnetic mineral. Magnetic separation is divided into two types: dry type and wet type. Dry 磁分离 must be preheated before drying and grading. The wet magnetic separator has a wide particle size and a lower particle size of 20um. 因此, when the zircon particle size is fine, the wet magnetic separator is more suitable.

锆英砂开采厂

Because there are many associated minerals in zircon sand, it is necessary to combine gravity separation, 磁分离, flotation and electrostatic separation.

The zircon sand concentrator is often divided into two parts: wet treatment and dry treatment. In the wet treatment stage, gangue minerals such as quartz, 长石 and mica are removed by gravity separation equipment such as cone concentrator, 螺旋选矿机, 瓶或夹具. The heavy minerals(crude concentrate)obtained are further separated by 2-4 stages of concentrating to remove the remaining light minerals, 然后集中, 脱水, 干, cooled and sent to dry treatment stage for further separation. Dry processing section is generally made up of weak 磁分离, high-intensity 磁分离 and electrostatic separation.

The aim is to recover magnetite, ilmenite, rutile 和独居石 which are associated with zircon. Magnetite can be recovered by weak 磁分离, ilmenite and 石榴石 can be recovered by strong 磁分离, 和独居石, rutile and zircon can be separated by high voltage electrostatic separator.

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